Patient-Centered Communication Tools (PaCT)
Patient-Centered Communication Tools (PaCT) is a new, validated communication instrument and assessment rubric tailored for pharmacist-patient interactions designed by faculty at St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Based on the College's past use of a validated instrument designed for physicians to evaluate student pharmacists' communication skills during patient encounters (Four Habits Model-FHM1), the College's faculty identified a need for a tool specific to the field of pharmacy. With grant funding provided by the Missouri Foundation for Health, the working group created the new tool in 2012.
- Patient-Centered Communication Tools (PDF)
- PaCT Rating Scale with Examples (for Training) (PDF)
- PaCT Rating Scale without Examples (for Assessment) (PDF)
Students’ performance scores from the FHM were analyzed over the 2010 and 2011 academic years. Analyses indicated that some components of the FHM worked for pharmacy education while others did not. As an initial step in the process, the working group conducted an exhaustive search of existing patient-provider communication models and tools before developing PaCT. Once essential communication criteria were established, the working group validated the tool in a three-step process with an external interdisciplinary panel of communication and health literacy experts2 and the College's faculty3, and students4. PaCT was first introduced during the 2012-2013 academic year to P3 student pharmacists.
|Development of Patient-Centered Communication Tools for Pharmacists||Faculty Validation of Patient-Centered Communication Tools||Use of Patient-Centered Communication Tools to Measure Pharmacy Student Communication Skills|
Future Plans for PaCT
The college continues to research the use of PaCT in pharmacy education to improve its use as a communication instrument in the field. Next steps include determining sensitivity and specificity and further validity testing by expansion of the project to other pharmacy programs. If your program might be interested in collaborating as a pilot-school, please contact us directly.
Training and Contact Information
Faculty from St. Louis College of Pharmacy are available to train your college's faculty and students in the use of PaCT. If your school is interested in training opportunities, or if you have questions about using the instrument at your institution, please contact Gloria Grice, Pharm.D., director of the office of experiential education, at email@example.com.
About Our Sponsors
The health literacy group at St. Louis College of Pharmacy is comprised of faculty and staff interested in advancing student pharmacists’ impact on health literacy in the community. Since 2010, the team has worked to strengthen the pharmacists’ role in health literacy through the development of innovative curricular changes, advanced practice opportunities, and community engagement events.
The team includes:
- Tricia Berry, Pharm.D.
- Nicole Gattas, Pharm.D.
- Gloria Grice, Pharm.D.
- Peter Hurd, Ph.D.
- Clark Kebodeaux, Pharm.D.
- Shin-Yu Lee, Pharm.D.
- Theresa Prosser, Pharm.D.
- Jill Sailors, Pharm.D.
- Amy Tiemeier, Pharm.D.
- Mychal Voorhees, M.A.
Missouri Foundation for Health is an independent philanthropic foundation dedicated to improving the health of people in the region. MFH works as a changemaker, educator, and partner to promote community health and increase access to care for the uninsured and underserved.
We thank Vibhuti Arya, Lynette Bradley-Baker, Robert Beardsley, Lisa Guirguis, Carole Kimberlin, Dee Dee McEwen, Nathaniel Rickles, Sharon Youmans, and Elizabeth Young for their assistance and support as expert panelists in conducting this study.
(1) Krupat E, Frankel RM, Stein T & Irish J. The Four Habits Coding Scheme: Validation of an instrument to assess clinicians’ communication behavior. Patient Educ Couns 2006;62:38-45.
(2) Prosser TR, Grice G, Gattas N, Sailors J, Voorhees M, Hurd PD, Kebodeaux C, Tiemeier AM, Berry TM. PaCT: Development of Patient-centered Communication Tools for Pharmacists. (Abstract) Am J Pharm Educ 2013; 77(5): Article 109 (p 81).
(3) Grice G, Prosser TR, Gattas N, Voorhees M, Sailors J, Hurd PD, Kebodeaux C, Tiemeier AM, Berry TM. PaCT: Faculty Validation of Patient-centered Communication Tools. (Abstract) Am J Pharm Educ 2013; 77(5): Article 109 (p 82).
(4) Gattas NM, Hurd PH, Grice G, Prosser TR, Voorhees M, Sailors J, Kebodeaux C, Tiemeier AM, Berry TM. PaCT: Use of Patient-centered Communication Tools to Measure Pharmacy Student Communication Skills. (Abstract) Am J Pharm Educ 2013; 77(5): Article 109 (p 82).
(5) Grice GR, Gattas NM, Prosser T, Voorhees M, Kebodeaux C, Tiemeier A, Berry T, Garavaglia Wilson A, Mann J, Juang P. Design and Validation of Patient-Centered Communication Tools (PaCT) to Measure Students’ Communication Skills. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2017; 81(8) Article 5927. Published online http://www.ajpe.org/doi/abs/10.5688/ajpe5927.